CAP Special Sessions

Canadian Association of Palynologists
Special Sessions

Session No. 297: T108. Palynology in Geoarchaeological and Environmental Studies (6 posters) at the GSA 2014 in Vancouver, BC, October 19–22 (GSA Archaeological Geology Division; Canadian Association of Palynologists; The Palynological Society; Paleontological Society), organized by Francine McCarthy

  • Price, Andrea M., Vera Pospelova, James S. Latimer and Gail L. Chmura – Coastal Eutrophication in Northeast U.S. Estuaries: Dinoflagellate Cysts as Bioindicators
  • Bringué, Manuel, Vera Pospelova, Steve Calvert and Tara Ivanochko – High Resolution Sedimentary Record Of Dinoflagellate Cysts from Effingham Inlet (BC, Canada) over the Past Millennium
  • Bringué, Manuel, Vera Pospelova and D. K. Pak – Seasonal Production of Organic-Walled Dinoflagellate Cysts in an Upwelling System: A Sediment Trap Study from the Santa Barbara Basin, California
  • McCarthy, Francine, Matea Drljepan, Olena Volik, Andrea Krueger and Donya Danesh – Using Non-Pollen Palynomorphs as Proxies of Water Quality
  • Hughes, Jonathan F. – Interpretation of Palynological Data from Sediment Cores Collected in Potentially “Noisy” Environments
  • Furth, Mary R., Jiawen Li, Matthew R. Lipman, Emily F. Mininberg, Takuto Sasajima, Trevor M. Thomas, David A. Wheeler, Bruce F. Rueger and Robert E. Nelson – New Pollen Evidence for the Postglacial Vegetation History of North Haven Island, Maine

CAP Special Session entitled The Palynology of Sudden Events, co-organized by Terri Lacourse and Alwynne Beaudoin at the AASP-CAP-NAMS-CIMP-DINO10 Joint Meeting, San Francisco, October 20-24 2013 (8 papers)

Session Description: What is the palynological signature of sudden events? Tsunamis, avalanches, floods, forest fires, earthquakes, debris flows, and volcanic ashfalls are sudden, usually rare and unpredictable, events. Such events often leave a clear geomorphic and sedimentological signature. But can they be recognized and distinguished from palynological evidence? And, if so, can the palynological record provide evidence of patterning, magnitude, or recurrence intervals that might help better forecast and prepare for future events? This session is intended to examine the palynology of sudden events using many different palynological indicators, and from any interval in the geologic past.

  • Kam-biu Liu – Invited Speaker: Palynology of hurricane events in coastal sediments
  • Peta J. Mudie and David B. Scott – Palynology of Los Peñasquitos Lagoon, San Diego, California: implications of the mid-Holocene mangrove pollen record
  • G. D. Wood, B. Kohl and D. G. Benson Jr – Provenance of reworked palynomorphs in the Pleistocene of the Gulf of Mexico: Proxy for identifying the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 2)
  • Arun Kumar and Lanny H. Fisk – Recycled Carboniferous pollen and spores in the Panna Formation (Paleocene-Early Eocene) of the Mumbai Offshore Basin, India: possible mega-tsunami triggered turbidity current transport from the Arabian Peninsula to offshore Mumbai
  • Ian C. Harding, D. Blake, P. J. Talling, J. E. Hunt, J. Emmings, C. J. Stevenson, R. Turner and A. Coleman – Global importance of inefficient organic carbon burial by canyon flushing marine mega-landslides (presentation scheduled but not given)
  • Lanny H. Fisk, Arun Kumar, James B. Riding and Martin Röper – Observations and preliminary interpretations regarding the age and depositional environment of the late Jurassic Solnhofen Formation – evidence from palynomorphs
  • I. F. Pendea, V. Ponomareva and K. McLeod – Invited Speaker: Disaster aftermath — decoding landscape and ecosystem responses to large-scale explosive volcanism
  • Alwynne B. Beaudoin and Terri Lacourse – What is the palaeoecological signature of the Mazama ashfall?

Special Session entitled The Palaeoecology of Extreme Environments, organized by Mary Vetter and Alwynne Beaudoin at the CANQUA-CGRG 2013 meeting in Edmonton, August 2013. The session was held on August 20.

Session abstract: Extreme environments occur in many forms, from the cold temperatures of arctic and alpine areas, to the aridity of deserts and grasslands, to the salinity of salt marshes and saline lakes, or the desiccation and UV influx on exposed rock surfaces. They may persist for millennia or be restricted in time and space, such as newly exposed terrain around glacial margins or recent volcanic deposits. Extreme environments can result from various stressors, including climate, biogeochemical or physical conditions, or biological factors. Such environments present challenges for biota and their associated palaeoecological records. Signals may be recorded by many proxy indicators including pollen, plant macroremains, diatoms, or dinoflagellates, We welcome contributions documenting extreme environments through single or multiple indicators, or reporting the results of studies focused on these types of localities.

  • Konrad Gajewski – Palynological Studies in the Canadian Arctic (presentation scheduled but not given)
  • Mary Edwards, James Haile, Eva Bellemain, Sanne Boesenkool, Laura Epp, Andrei Andreev, Anatoly Lozhkin, Heather Binney, Julian Murton and the Ecochange A2 group – A Molecular Approach to Reconstructing the Northern Pleistocene Biota (presentation not originally scheduled for this session but given in place of previous paper)
  • Kathryn E. Hargan, Kathleen M. Rühland, Andrew M. Paterson, Bill Keller, James Holmquist, Glen MacDonald, Sarah Finkelstein, John P. Smol – Diatoms Strengthen Our Interpretations of Past Northern Peatland Environments
  • Jessie H. Vincent, Les C. Cwynar – Regional Variation in Lateglacial Climate Change in Nova Scotia
  • Peter J. Barnett, Sarah A. Finkelstein – Sub-Till Organic-Bearing Sediments of the Hudson Bay Lowland: Stratigraphy And Geochronology
  • Sarah A. Finkelstein, Peter J. Barnett – Palynology of The Organic-Bearing Sub-Till Sediments of the Missinaibi Formation, James and Hudson Bay Lowlands: Implications for Pleistocene Geochronology and Paleoenvironments

Special Session in honour of Jock McAndrews, convened by Francine McCarthy, at the AASP-CAP-GACPD Joint Meeting, Halifax, Nova Scotia, September 2010. The session was entitled “The Amazingly Diverse World of Quaternary Palynology: A Celebration of the Career of Jock McAndrews“.

Session description: The versatility of Jock McAndrews and his students ranges from Holocene freshwater dinocysts and other non-pollen palynomorphs, through the archaeopalynology of mammoth skulls and varved lake sediments to volumes on modern pollen morphology and identification. A keynote talk will be given by Roger Byrne, University of California, Berkeley , Jock’s first post-doctoral associate and co-worker at Crawford Lake who is now studying wildfire records and human impacts on landscapes in varved marine pollen record.

[Below is an extract of a contribution from Francine McCarthy, in CAP Newsletter 33(2), 2010, pp. 4-5]

Seventeen talks and several posters were presented on Thursday, September 30 at the Harbourview Holiday Inn in Dartmouth. In keeping with the title, “The Amazingly Diverse World of Quaternary Palynology: A Celebration of the Career of Jock McAndrews”, the presentations covered an impressively Wide range of topics in Quaternary palynology, dealing not only with pollen and embryophyte spores, but with a wide range of non-pollen palynomorphs such as dinoflagellate cysts and insect mandibles. Presenters included several former students from the old Palynology Lab in the Botany Department of the Royal Ontario Museum, and they came from as far away as Austria (thanks, Jean Nicolas, former post-doc in the lab!) to attend the session. The session staffed with an interesting retrospective of Jock’s career, presented by Kam-biu Liu, and Roger Byrne gave the keynote talk on prehistoric agriculture. Several former and current University of Toronto students gave talks, in addition to me -Zicheng Yu, Matt Peros, Calvin Chan, and Carlos E. Avendañio, from Sara Finkelstein’s lab, who gave an award-winning talk. Other long-time colleagues, such as Vaughn Bryant, Dave Scott, and Rolf Mathewes presented papers, and best wishes were sent from several others who could not attend, such as Pierre Richard, Thane Anderson and Sarah Finkelstein. A number of other presentations by young Quaternary palynologists rounded out the program, which resulted in a very well-attended session.

CAP-sponsored Special Session entitled “New Directions in the Use of Pollen Analysis in Environmental and Climatic Reconstructions“, organized by Matthew Peros, Sarah Finkelstein and Elisabeth Levac, at 2009 Joint Assembly of the American Geophysical Union, Toronto.

  • Bianca Fréchette and Anne de Vernal – Holocene and Last Interglacial Cloudiness in Eastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada
  • André Viau and Konrad Gajewski – Space-time evolution of the climate of northern Canada and Alaska during the Holocene
  • Konrad Gajewski, Matthew Peros, and Samuel Munoz – Large-scale paleoenvironmental analyses using pollen databases
  • Matthew Peros and Konrad Gajewski – Testing the reliability of pollen-based di- versity estimates
  • Changhui Peng and H. Wu, Jöel Guiot and Z. Guo – Reconstructing Paleoclimate and Historical Terrestrial Carbon Storage from Pollen Data Using Inverse Modelling Approach
  • Jeannine St. Jacques, Catherine Hart, Mary Vetter, Dave Sauchyn and Jock McAndrews – High-Resolution Pollen Records From the Southern Boreal Forest/Aspen Parkland Ecotone in Saskatchewan, Canada

CAP Special Session “Putting the Ecology Back into Paleoecology“, organized by Terri Lacourse and Marlow Pellatt, at CANQUA meeting at Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, May 2009.


  • Marlow Pellatt – Can paleoenvironmental studies help conservation ecologists restore ecosystems and manage for ecological integrity?
  • Alexandra Gerber – A Holocene-scale Analysis of Forest Fire Regimes Near St. Lawrence Islands National Park, Ontario, Using Charcoal as a Paleoindicator
  • Rolf Mathewes – Comparing Historic Anthropogenic Disturbance and Paleoenvironmental Changes Using Modern and Fossil Pollen from a Temperate Rainforest
  • Terri Lacourse – The Role of Life History Variation in Postglacial Vegetation Dynamics
  • Gail Chmura – Reconstructing Wetland Succession on Rebounding Coastlines Using Modern Analogues
  • Vera Pospelova – Late Quaternary Climate and Marine Productivity Changes Along the California Margin
  • Richard Hebda – Timing and Environments of the Olympia Non-Glacial Interval in the Fraser Lowland of British Columbia


  • Alwynne Beaudoin – The Value of Reference Collections in Paleoecology
  • Svetlana Esenkulova – Dinoflagellate Cyst Production in the Central Strait of Georgia (BC, Canada) in Response to 1997-98 El Niño Event
  • Simon Goring – How Sensitive are Pollen-based Climate Models to Large-scale Vegetation Change? An Example from Marion Lake, British Columbia
  • Alanna Krepakevich – The Impact of Sewage Discharge on Coastal Bays of Southern Vancouver Island (BC, Canada) Reflected in Phytoplankton Sedimentary Records
  • Diana Tirlea – Climate-Mediated Terrestrial-Aquatic Linkages in Small Alpine Catchments in Banff National Park, Alberta

Special Session in honour of Pierre Richard, “Palynology: stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental applications“, organized by Elisabeth Levac and Michelle Garneau, at the GAC-MAC-SEG-SGA Joint Annual Meeting, Quebec City, May 2008.

[Below is an extract from CAP Newsletter 31(2), 2008, pp. 3-5]

(…) The session gathered together close to 35 people around eight oral and four poster presentations on various topics: conditions of carbon accumulation in peatlands, postglacial vegetational history, climate and stratigraphical reconstructions based on dinoflagellates (Holocene and Campanian-Maastrichian), role of sun in the climate system (cyclicity in high resolution pollen, diatom and sedimentological data), and airborne pollen and spores monitoring and forecasting.
This special session was dedicated to Pierre J.H. Richard. Dr. Jean-Claude Dionne, geomorphologist and Professor Emeritus (Géographie, Université Laval, Québec) first praised Pierre, describing the man and his contributions in colourful terms, setting his action in the historical context of l’Association québécoise pour l’étude du Quaternaire (AQQUA) and that of the journal Géographie physique et Quaternaire (GpQ). Oral papers then followed (…).

Oral Presentations:

  • M. Garneau, Hans Asnong. Beaulieu-Audy, V., Ali, A., Loisel, J., van Bellen, S.,
    Turunen, J. et Pelletier, L. Accumulations récente et à long terme du carbone des
    tourbières boréales des basses-terres de la Baie de James, Québec, Canada.
  • Julie Loisel and Michelle Garneau. The effects of moisture, climate and vegetation on
    long-term carbon sequestration rates in two boreal peat bogs, James Bay, Québec.
  • Louis Tremblay et M. Garneau. Aqualyse des tourbières du complexe LaGrande:
    Développement des mares et reconstitution des changements hydrologiques.
  • Martin Lavoie, S. Pellerin, A.-M. Girard-Cloutier, M. Bottolier Curtet et M. Larocque.
    La tourbière du mont Covey en Montérégie (Québec): plus de 12 000 ans d’informations paléoenvironnementales.
  • Jennifer M. Galloway, A. Wigston, A. Prokosh, R.T. Patterson and H. M. Roe. A high-resolution pollen, diatom, and sedimentary record of Late Holocene climate variability from an anoxic fjord in the Seymour-Belize Inlet Complex, British Columbia.
  • Matthew T.J. Dalzell and D.R. Braman. Dinoflagellate magnetobiostratigraphy and
    palaeoecology of the Bearpaw Formation of Alberta: An example of a multi-proxy palynological study.
  • Andre Rochon and T. Richerol. Evolution of sea surface conditions in the Beaufort Sea
    (Canada) over the last 600 years: A preindustrial record of climate change.
  • Pierre J.H. Richard. Dynamique postglaciaire de la végétation au Mont St-Hilaire par l’analyse pollinique de deux archives sédimentaires contrastées.

Poster Presentations:

  • Pierre-Luc Dallaire et M. Garneau. L’utilisation d’un Géoradar (GPR) afin de caractériser la stratigraphie de la tourbe et estimer le carbone organique accumulé dans une tourbière boréale, région d’Eastmain, baie James, Québec.
  • Ann A.L. Miller, E. Levac, D. L. Waugh, B.J.A. Moulton and D.H.S. Richardson. The Nova Scotia Experimental Pollen and Spore Monitoring and Forecast Program: 7-year
    results and trends.
  • Anne Quillet, M. Garneau et C. Peng. Etude des fluctuations du niveau de la nappe phréatique et de l’accumulation du carbone dans deux fens et deux bogs de la région des basses terres de la Baie James au Québec.
  • Simon van Bellen, M. Garneau et Y. Bergeron. Carbon accumulation rates, fire history and a multi-proxy record in three ombrotrophic bogs in the James Bay region.

A session entitled “What happens to pollen: The trip from anther to microscope slide“, organised by Vaughn Bryant and Catherine Yansa, held at the AASP 38th Annual Meeting in St. Louis, Missouri, in 2005.

A symposium entitled “Land-Sea Correlations in the Cenozoic“, co-convened by Alwynne Beaudoin and Martin Head, and held at AASP-CAP-NAMS Joint Meeting, in St Catharines, Ontario, in 2003.

  • René Grube and Barbara Mohr – Vegetation and climate during the Eocene / Oliocene bounday interval in southern high latitudes – first results
  • Martin L. Little and Francine M. G. McCarthy – Eolian transport of terrigenous material from east Asia to western North Pacific ODP Sites 1179, 881, an 884 since the mid-Pliocene: positive feedback for global cooling
  • Duncan J. Findlay, Francine M. G. McCarthy and Uwe Brand – A terrestrial source for anomalous calcium carbonate preservation in the abyssal western North Pacific
  • Thomas Demchuk and R. J. Morley – General palynofloral characteristics from Nigeria deepwater offshore: chronostratigraphy adnd calibration to sequence
  • Owen K. Davis and Tom Montoux – The Early-Middle Pleistocene transition in the North American northern Great Basin
  • Martin J. Head – Dinoflagellate cysts and hydrographic development of the Baltic Sea during the Last Interglacial (Eemian, ca. 128-115 ka)
  • Hiroshi Kawamura, Markus Kienast and Wolfgang Kuhnt – 44,000 year marine palynological and geochemical records from the southern South China Sea

A special session on “The Palynology and Micropaleontology of Boundaries“, held at the Geological Association of Canada-Mineralogical Association of Canada (GAC/MAC) Joint Annual Meeting in Saskatoon in 2002 and co-convened by Alwynne Beaudoin and Martin Head.


  • Norman MacLeod – Identifying long-term controls on Phanerozoic extinction and diversification patterns diversification patterns
  • Charles M. Henderson, Shilong Mei, Yugan Jin and Changqun Cao – Conodont definition for the basal boundary of the Lopingian Series, Permian
  • James M. White – The Jurassic – Cretaceous boundary: an experiment in modelling the palynological transition.
  • Paul J. Sikora, R. W. Howe and J. A. Stein – High-resolution Chronostratigraphic Analysis and Cyclostratigraphy of a Proposed Turonian/Coniacian Boundary Stratotype, Fort Hays Member of the Niobrara Formation, Wagon Mound, New Mexico, USA
  • Catherine H. Yansa – The Spatial and Temporal Boundaries of White Spruce Occupation of the Northern Great Plains During the Terminal Pleistocene Based on Pollen and Plant Macrofossil Evidence
  • Marion G. Parsons and G. Norris – Response of coastal vegetation and marine dinoflagellates to changes in sea level and climate during the late Paleocene and Eocene in the Mackenzie Delta region, N.W.T.
  • Jonathan F. Hughes and R. W. Mathewes – Pollen records vegetation change with elevation over short distances in a salt marsh near Tofino, British Columbia.


  • Boris L. Nikitenko – Microfossils (Foraminifers and Ostracods) and Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary in the Arctic Basins
  • Carolina A. Nanez, A. Parras, H. J. Hansen, A. Concheyro, S. Alonso, S. Lojen and M. Pires – A southern, shallow marine, Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary: Bajada del Jagüel section, Neuquén Basin, Argentina
  • Teresa Fernandez Marron, J. F. Fonolla Ocete, N. Lopez-Martinez and M. F. Valle – Palaeogeographic factors in the palynological record across the K/T boundary in Southern Pyrenees (Spain)
  • Natalia K. Lebedeva, Boris L. Nikitenko, V. I. Ilyina and E. B. Pestchevitskaya – Micropaleontological analysis across Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous boundary in Nordvik Peninsular standard section (north of Middle Siberia)
  • G. Raquel Guerstein, C. Cayulef and M. V. Guler – Dinoflagellate cysts from Eocene/Oligocene boundary beds in the western South Atlantic
  • Shilong Mei, Charles M. Henderson and Changqun Cao – Conodont definition for the basal boundary of the Changhsingian Stage, Lopingian Series, Permian
  • Saad Z. Al-Mashaikie – Upper Namurian-lower Westphalian palynomorphs from North Yemen

A theme session entitled “Palynology and Micropaleontology in Canadian Geoscience: New Frontiers and Applications“, co-convened by Alwynne Beaudoin and Martin Head, at the GeoCanada 2000 meeting in Calgary.

  • David M. Jowett and Christoper R. Barnes – High-Resolution Lower Silurian Conodont Biostratigraphy: Integrating Traditional Paleontological Data
  • Shunxin Zhang and Christopher R. Barnes – The Post-Extinction Evolutionary Radiation, Biofacies Partitioning, and Response to Eustatic Changes of Early Silurian Conodonts, Anticosti Basin, Quebec
  • Sonny Baxter – Conodont Biostratigraphy for Mississippian Rocks of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin
  • Charles M. Henderson and Shilong Mei – Permian Correlation Between Equatorial South China and Temperate Northwestern Pangea: Difficulties and Possible Solutions
  • Niranjala Kottachchi, Claudia J. Schröder-Adams, James W. Haggart and Howard W. Tipper – Jurassic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy and Paleoenvironments of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia: A New Piece in the Cordilleran Puzzle
  • Dale A. Leckie, Claudia J. Schröder-Adams and John Bloch – Understanding the Fish Scales and Barons Formations – The Efffect of Paleotopography on the Late Albian and Cenomanian Sea-Level Record
  • Marion Grace Parsons and Geoffrey Norris – Palynology and Ecostratigraphy of Paleogene Terrestrial, Freshwater and Marine Floral Assemblages from the Caribou Hills, Mackenzie Delta
  • Martin J. Head and Geoffrey Norris – Pliocene Dinoflagellate Cyst Stratigraphy of the Western North Atlantic, and its Applicability to Shallow Marine Deposits of Eastern England
  • Charu Sharma – Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction of the Quaternary Mekong-Molengraaff River Deltas on the Sunda Shelf, South China Sea
  • Arun Kumar and R. T. Patterson – Arcellaceans (Thecamoebians) As Proxies for Chemical Pollution and Remediation in Lakes
  • Francine M. McCarthy, Peta J. Mudie, Andre Rochon, Kevin E. Gostlin and Elisabeth Levac – Taphonomic Problems in Marine Palynology and Possible Solutions
  • Dermot M. Antoniades, M. S. V. Douglas, John P.Smol, D. S. S. Lim and N. Michelutti – Applications of Diatoms to Assessing Paleoenvironmental Change in the Canadian High Arctic
  • Trecia M. Schell – Holocene Paleoproductivity in the Northwestern Pacific Determined by Foraminiferal Assemblages in Some Fjords of Vancouver Island, British Columbia
  • Konrad Gajewski – High-Resolution Pollen Analysis from Lake Sediments: Review and Current Directions
  • Rolf W. Mathewes – Paleoecology of a Lost World: Postglacial Environments and Biogeography of the Continental Shelf of Western Canada
  • Marlow G. Pellatt, Rolf W Mathewes and John J. Clague – Implications of the Mike Lake Pollen Record For the Glacial and Climatic History of the Fraser Lowland, British Columbia
  • Alain Grenier and Konrad Gajewski – Comparison of Lake-Sediment Chemistry and Pollen Analysis at Treeline in Northern Québec

A symposium, “Palynology in Canada – Palaeoecological and Stratigraphic Applications“, organized by Alwynne Beaudoin, Bert van Helden and David McIntyre, and held with the Geological Association of Canada meetings at Edmonton on May 18 1993.


  • Eliott T. Burden, S. Henry Williams and P. K. Mukhopadhyay – Comparative analysis of thermal maturation indices of acritarchs, spores, graptolites and vitrinite from Paleozoic strata, Western Newfoundland
  • David J. McIntyre, C. J. Schröder-Adams and J. H. Craig – Late Albian to Turonian palynological and microfaunal assemblages, Lower Colorado Group, Southern Alberta
  • R. Andrew MacRae and Len V. Hills – Species succession and morphoclines of the fossil dinoflagellate Nyktericysta: A measure of increasing palaeoenvironmental stress and proximity to shoreline?
  • Len V. Hills, L. Koldo Núñez-Betelu, Frederico F. Krause and David J. McIntyre – Palynological re- evaluation of the Cretaceous Hassel / Kanguk FMS boundary at Mt. Bridgeman, Ellesmere Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago
  • Dale A. Leckie and Elliott T. Burden – Geology of Middle to Late Albian unconformities in the Alberta Basin: Correlation of basin-wide erosion surfaces
  • Bert G. Van Helden – Palynostratigraphy and depositional environments of Jurassic sequences in the Western Canada Basin
  • R. Andrew MacRae, Robert A. Fensome and Graham L. Williams – Dinoflagellate diversities, extinctions and sea-level curves
  • Graham L. Williams, John A. Wade, Robert A. Fensome, Bernard C. McLean and Lewis E. Stover – Palynological delineation of third order sequences, Scotian Margin
  • James M. White and Thomas A. Ager – Middle and Late Miocene “snapshots” of vegetation and climate in Northwestern Canada and Alaska, and biostratigraphic implications
  • Martin Head, Geoff Norris, Laurent de Verteuil, C. Anstey, S. Kolev and Florin Neumann – Dinoflagellate cysts as sensitive signals for Neogene cooling in the North Atlantic and continuous seas: Ecostratigraphic analysis of deep-sea and shelfal assemblages


  • Ramakant M. Kalgutkar – Fossil fungal spores and fructifications from Iceberg Bay Formation, Kanguk Peninsula, Eureka Sound Group, Axel Heiberg Island, Northwest Territories

Note: The CAP-sponsored sessions in 2000 and 2002 resulted in the publication of papers in edited volumes in 2002 and 2004, further promoting and highlighting the Association.